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All are remembered as powerful symbols of their time. Our story begins almost years ago on 28 September before the Christian Era, when the Athenian navy destroyed the Persian invasion fleet in the Bay of Salamis. Had the Persians won we might never have heard the names of Plato, Aristotle or Alexander, nor recognize the word democracy. Charting 50 such defining moments, concluding with 11 September and the destruction of New York's Twin Towers, Days that Changed the World is a unique and fascinating way to portray the story of world history.

Emperor of the West: Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire.


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Evelyn Waugh: A Life Revisited. The Hairy Dieters: Fast Food. My Life with Wagner. Guide To Better Acol Bridge. His strategy: to become the one-stop shop for mobile consumers, with Alipay as the central infrastructure. But there are challenges ahead. At the same time, signs of slowing economic growth sparked a massive downturn in Chinese equities this past summer. The uncertain outlook at home has put pressure on Alibaba to prove that it can succeed in other countries.

The company is well positioned for emerging markets, thanks to its expertise in operating in places where logistics are poor. But finding a way to grow in the U. In the meantime, some Silicon Valley brands are laying the groundwork to compete with Alibaba on its home turf. Apple has filed paperwork in Shanghai to launch Apple Pay, a direct Alipay competitor.

It used to be that venture capitalists expected a certain amount of control in return for their check, and young entrepreneurs often found themselves on the sidelines of their own companies. That same year, Silicon Valley incubator Y Combinator launched with the then radical notion that founders should be cultivated, not marginalized. Instead of just pumping money into companies, YC created a now-biannual program that selects promising founders, guides them through a rigorous grooming program, then helps them pitch their companies to other investors.

Current president Sam Altman —whose company, Loopt, was part of the first-ever YC class—and founding partner Jessica Livingston recall how that idea transformed modern venture capital. It was either talk to your rich uncle or you had to have a whole business plan mapped out. We chose eight startups. Sam Altman: I was at Stanford when YC was announced, and it spread like wildfire through the computer science department. All of us were like, finally, this is made exactly for us: This is the amount of money we need, and these people sound like they are really cool to work with, unlike venture capitalists, who seem scary.

We wanted to be really founder friendly. All of the funding was for common stock. No preferred stock, no extra bells and whistles.

Days That Changed the World: The 50 Defining Events of World History

SA: With VCs, there were all these terms that were deliberately obscuring what was going on, and I think they liked it that way. Liquidation preferences and ratchets and anti-dilutions and drag-alongs and no-shops. It was this club that was hard to break into. They would only talk to you if someone they knew introduced you. JL: We wanted to make quick decisions, because venture capitalists take a long time to decide to invest in you—months, in some cases.

That was never done before us. We left YC knowing all of that. It takes a long time to learn to be a great coder; it does not take a long time to learn all of that other stuff. What happened in was a shift from investors holding most of the leverage to founders holding most of the leverage. That was a tectonic change. The biggest lesson was that more people will start startups if we make it easy for them.

As a result, nearly three decades after being introduced in the U. How Walmart nearly single-handedly changed that is a study in how a company can use its size for good. Lee Scott Jr. But the retailer went all-in, redesigning displays, increasing selection, educating consumers, and launching an affordable private-label brand.

In the second quarter of , shipments of CFLs surpassed traditional incandescents for the first time. But most experts believe the future belongs to LED bulbs, which are even more efficient than CFLs—and increasingly affordable. Remember life before the iPhone? Here are some of the biggest transformations brought on by the iPhone. It changed not just how we talk about software but how we consume and use it.

But the iPhone and other smartphones have allowed us to be constantly connected. As a result, Americans now spend more time on the Internet via mobile devices than desktops and laptops. And landmark Apple interactions such as pinch-to-zoom have removed the barriers of mice and keyboards to make information tangible and easily accessible.

It also gave rise to photo-based social apps like Instagram and Snapchat. As a result, photography has become central to the way we communicate with each other. Words like simple , magical , and delightful now rule product design. And our devices are as much fashion statements as they are digital tools. Today, every major carrier in the U. Apple has taken steps to improve the situation, but the revelations of unsavory factory conditions were a reminder of the unintended costs of building popular products.

What about BlackBerry or Nokia? Everything shifted after the iPhone, which sent other phone manufacturers scrambling. Samsung and Xiaomi have built multi-billion-dollar businesses drafting off of Apple. Others were too slow to react and have paid the price. Economic downturns can be surprisingly fertile soil. Apple, Disney, and General Motors were all born from recessions—evidence that when the economy is down, some of the most resilient ideas rise up.


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  • The same was true in Businesses closed doors and layoffs came in waves. But even as Wall Street crashed, green shoots were appearing in Silicon Valley and elsewhere, thanks to entrepreneurs who saw opportunities for innovation in the downfall. Neda Agha-Soltan, only 26 years old, was shot dead on June 20, The philosophy student was on her way to watch the protests against the victory of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in the Iranian presidential election when she was struck by a single bullet, believed to have been fired by security forces.

    She died surrounded by onlookers, who held her as she bled—an act that was captured by a shaking cell-phone camera and uploaded to Facebook and YouTube.

    The Most Important Events of the Century From the Viewpoint of the People

    The video quickly went viral on Twitter , and soon media outlets like the BBC and CNN began broadcasting versions, turning Agha-Soltan into the face of the Green Movement in Iran and drawing attention to clashes between the Iranian people and their government. Never before had citizens in crisis been able to disseminate their stories so easily to millions of strangers around the world.

    Aided by hashtags such as iranelection and Neda, Twitter played an especially outsize role throughout the summer. As the Iranian government shut down text and cell-phone service inside the country, protesters used the still-nascent social network to communicate vital information—police activity, protest locations, and calls for medical assistance—to one another and to activists outside the country. When the service was blocked inside Iran, protesters turned to websites that helped post tweets on their behalf.

    And international news outlets combed through Twitter to gather eyewitness accounts of the turmoil. By the end of the year, the proportion of Twitter users outside the U. Along with every bullet.

    The basement of a Hyatt in L. Five years later, VidCon is a 21,person event that attracts major brands, and creators such as Grace Helbig have become mainstream stars. Such interactions have become both more numerous and more continual and substantial in recent times. Before about , the network of communication between cultures was that of Eurasia.

    Top Five U.S. Events of the Last 40 Years

    The term for these areas of interaction differ from one world historian to another and include world-system and ecumene. Whatever it is called, the importance of these intercultural contacts has begun to be recognized by many scholars. As early as , the American Historical Association advocated the study of the past on a world scale. Walter Wallbank and Alastair M. With additional authors, this very successful work went through numerous editions up to the first decade of the twenty-first century.

    It attempted to include all the elements of history — social, economic, political, religious, aesthetic, legal, and technological. Louis Gottschalk , William H. McNeill , and Leften S. Stavrianos Became leaders in the integration of world history and to the American College curriculum. McNeill, influenced by Toynbee, broadened his work on the 20th century to new topics. Since the World History Association, And at several regional associations began a program to help history professors broadened their coverage in freshman courses; world history became a popular replacement for courses on Western Civilization.

    Dunn at San Diego State are leaders in promoting innovative teaching methods.

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    In related disciplines, such as art history and architectural history, global perspectives have been promoted as well. In schools of architecture in the U. This reflects a decade-long effort to move past the standard Euro-centric approach that had dominated the field. In recent years, the relationship between African and world history has shifted rapidly from one of antipathy to one of engagement and synthesis.

    Reynolds surveys the relationship between African and world histories, with an emphasis on the tension between the area studies paradigm and the growing world-history emphasis on connections and exchange across regional boundaries. A closer examination of recent exchanges and debates over the merits of this exchange is also featured.

    Reynolds sees the relationship between African and world history as a measure of the changing nature of historical inquiry over the past century. The theory divides the history of the world into the following periods: [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] Primitive communism; Slave society; Feudalism; Capitalism; and Socialism. Regna Darnell and Frederic Gleach argue that, in the Soviet Union, the Marxian theory of history was the only accepted orthodoxy, and stifled research into other schools of thought on history.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the academic field. For a global overview of historical events, see History of the world. For the album by Mad at the World, see World History album. The current title of this article is disputed. Alternative proposed titles are: World history academic field , and World history academic field. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page.

    July This article may lack focus or may be about more than one topic. In particular, is it about an academic discipline from the s, or about world history as commonly understood with roots going back to the Ancient Greeks?.

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    Bentley Oxford: Oxford University Press, , pp. Syracuse University Press. Retrieved 25 May Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, 3 vols. Henry Miers , Sir; John Dowson. The Muhammadan Period Vol 3. Retrieved The Soul and the Body in Hegel's Anthropology. Loyola University Chicago. History of Philosophy Quarterly. An Essay on the History of Civil Society. Chicago, Illinois: The University of Chicago.

    McNeill, Arnold J.

    Days That Changed The World - The 50 Defining Events Of World History

    Walter; et al. New York: HarperCollins. Dunn , ed.